• Jakimovska Kristina Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” University in Skopje, P.O. Box 464, MK-1001, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Vasileva Anita Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” University in Skopje, P.O. Box 464, MK-1001, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Bartlomiejczyk Mikolaj Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electric and Control Engineering, Department of Electrified Transportation, Gdańsk, Poland




eco friendly, electric buses, electromobility


Since the world pollution has been increased, the need for eco-solutions is alarming. One solution is electric vehicles, which have been rapidly developed in recent years. Those vehicles are energy efficient and emission free, but the initial costs can be much higher in comparison to other vehicles. This paper would focus on the methods of charging power and battery requirements as well as energy consumption. Analyzing the methods of charging for achieving environmentally friendly cities, as well as comparisons between the methods will greatly support the deve­l­opment of strategies for achieving zero emissions.


Bartłomiejczyk, M.: Dynamic Charging of Electric Buses, De Gruyter,Warsaw,Poland, 2018.

Bartłomiejczyk, M.: Practical application of a motion charging: Trolleybuses service on bus lines, Proceedingsof the 18thInternational Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering(EPE), 17–19 May 2017,pp. 1–6.(DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2017.7967239).

Bartłomiejczyk, M.: Smart grid technologies in electric power supply systems of public transport, Proceedingsof the12thInternational Conference: Modern Electrified Transport, pp. 8–14, 2015.

Bartłomiejczyk, M., Połom, M.: Possibilities for develop-ing electromobility by using autonomously powered troll-leybuses based on the example of Gdynia.Energies, Vol. 14, No. 2971, pp. 2–23(2021).

Barraza, O., Estrada, M.: Battery electric bus network: Ef-ficient design and cost comparison of differentpower-trains,Sustainability, Vol. 13, No.9,4745(2021).

Krawiec, S., Krawiec, K.: Rozwój elektromobilności w Polsce. Uwarunkowania, cele i bariery., Zesz. Nauk. Uniw. Ekon. w Katowicach, Vol. 332, pp. 17–21(2017).

Jefferies, D., Göhlich, D.: A Comprehensive TCO evalua-tion method for electric bus systems based on discrete-event simulation including bus scheduling and charging infrastructure optimisation, World Electric Vehicle Jour-nal, Vol. 11, No. 56, pp. 2–43(2020).

Ke, B.R.., Chung, C.Y., Chen, Y.C.: Minimizing the costs of constructing an all plug-in electric bus transportation system, A case study in Penghu. Appl. Energy, No. 177, pp. 649–660(2016).

Wołek, M., Wolański, M., Bartłomiejczyk, M., Wyszo-mirski, O., Grzelec, K., Hebel, K.: Ensuring sustainable development of urban public transport: A case study of the trolleybus system in Gdynia and Sopot (Poland), Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 279, No. 123807, (2021).

Vilppo, O., Markkula, J.: Feasibility of electric buses in public transport, In:Proceedings of the EVS28 Interna-tional ElectricVehicle Symposium and Exhibition,Seoul,Korea, 3–5 May 2015, Vol. 7, pp. 1–9.

Bartłomiejczyk, M., Połom, M.: Sustainable use of the ca-tenary by trolleybuses with auxiliary power sources on the example ofGdynia, Infrastructures, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 1–17(2021).

Tomaszewski, K.:The Polish road to the new European Green Deal–challenges and threats to the national energy policy, Energy Policy Journal, No. 23, pp. 5–18(2020).

Depré, C., Guida, U.: An Updated Overview of Electric Buses in Europe, ZeEUS eBus Report Brussels, Belgium, No. 2 (2018).

Brdulak, A., Chaberek, G., Jagodziński, J.: Development forecasts for the zero-emission bus fleet in servicing public transport in chosen EU member countries, Energies, Vol. 13, No. 4239, pp. 1–19(2020).

An, K.: Battery electric bus infrastructure planning under demand uncertainty, Transp. Res. Part CEmerg. Technol., No. 111, pp. 572–587(2020).

Paul, T., Yamada, H.: Operation and charging scheduling of electric buses in a city bus route network, In:Proceed-ings of the17thInternational IEEE Conference on Intel-ligent Transportation Systems (ITSC),Qingdao, China, 8–11 October 2014,pp. 2780–2786.

May, N.: Local environmental impact assessment as deci-sion support for the introduction of electromobility in ur-ban public transport systems, Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ, No. 64, pp. 192–203(2018).

Gokce, K.: Performance evaluation of a newly designed robotized gearbox for electric city buses, Mechanika, No. 23, pp. 639–645(2017).

Wierzbowski, M., Filipiak, I., Łyzwa, W.: Polish energy policy 2050–An instrument to develop a diversified and sustainable electricity generation mix in coal-based energy system, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., No. 74, pp. 51–70(2017).

Kühne, R.: Electric buses–An energy efficient urban transportation means, Energy, No. 35, pp. 4510–4513(2010).

Rocco, M.V., Casalegno, A., Colombo, E.: Modeling road transport technologies in future scenarios: Theoretical comparison and application of Well-to-Wheels and Input-Output analyses, Appl. Energy, No. 232, pp. 583–597(2018).

Maglaras, L.A., Jiang. J., Maglaras, A., Topalis, F.V., Moschoyiannis, S.: Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles on the move with Mobile Energy Disseminators, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 6(2015).

Vaez-Zadeh, S., Babaki, A., Zakerian, A.: Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in Smart Cities, Dynamic Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles, CRC Press, pp. 407–435, 2020.

Binetti, G., Davoudi, A., Naso, D., Turchiano, B., Lewis, F.L.: Scalable real-time electric vehicles charging with dis-crete charging rates,IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, No. 6, pp. 2211–2220(2015).

Boglou, V., Karavas, C.-S., Arvanitis, K., Karlis, A.: A fuzzy energy management strategy for the coordination of electric vehicle charging in low voltage distribution grids, Energies, Vol. 13, No. 3709(2020).

Mohamed, N., Aymen, F., Mouna, B.H.: Wireless charg-ing system for a mobile hybrid electric vehicle, In:Pro-ceedings of theInternational Symposium on Advanced Electrical and Communication Technologies(ISAECT), 2018.

Mahmoud, M., Garnett, R., Ferguson, M., Kanaroglou, P.: Electric buses: A review of alternative powertrains,Re-newable & Sustainable Energy Review, No. 62, pp. 673–684(2016).

Muratori, M.:Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric ve-hicle charging on residential power demand, Nat. Energy, No.3, pp. 193–201(2018).

Rogge, M., Van der Hurk, E., Larsen, A., Sauer, D.U.: Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure, Appl. Energy, No. 211, pp. 282–295(2018).

An, K.: Battery electric bus infrastructure planning under demand uncertainty, Transp. Res. Part C.Emerg. Technol. Vol. 111, pp. 572–587(2020).

Zhang, A., Li, T., Zheng,Y., Li, X., Abdullah, M.G., Dong, C.: Mixed electric bus fleet scheduling problem with par-tial mixed-route and partial recharging, International Jour-nal of Sustainable Transportation, pp. 1–11(2021).

Deliali, A., Chhan, D., Oliver, J., Sayess, R.,Godri Pollitt, K.J., Christofa, E.: Transitioning to zero-emission bus fleets: state of practice of implementations in the United States, Transport Reviews, Vol. 41, No.2, pp. 164–191(2021).

Sun, Z., Wang, C., Ye, Z., Bi, X.: Long short-term memory network-based emission models for conventional and new energy buses, International Journal of Sustainable Trans-portation, Vol. 15, No.3, pp. 229–238, 2021.

Zhou, Y., Cathy Liu, X., Wei, R., Golub, A.: Bi-objective optimization for battery electric bus deployment consid-ering cost and environmental equity, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 2487–2497(2021).

Alwesabi, Y., Liu, Z., Kwon, S., Wang, Y.: A novel inte-gration of schedulingand dynamic wireless charging plan-ning models of battery electric buses, Energy, Vol. 230, No. 1(2021).

Zhang, W., Zhao, H., Song, Z.: Integrating transit route network design and fast charging station planning for battery electric buses, IEEE Access, Vol. 9, pp. 51604-51617(2021).

Zhang, X., Nie, S., He, M., Wang, J.: Case Studies in Ther-mal Engineering, Charging system analysis, energy con-sumption, and carbon dioxide emissions of battery electric buses in Beijing, Elsevier, Vol.26, 2021.

Hoekstra, A.: The underestimated potential of battery elec-tric vehicles to reduce emissions, Joule, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 1412–1414(2019).

Teixeira, A.C.R., Sodré, J.R.: Impacts of repacementof engine powered vehicles by electric vehicles on energy consumption and CO2emission, Transport. Res. D, Vol. 59, pp. 375–384(2018).

Gao, Z.M., Lin, Z.H., LaClair, T., Liu, C.Z., Li, J.M., Birky, A.K.: Battery capacity ad recharging needs forelectric buses in city transit service, Energy, Vol. 122, No.1, pp. 588–600(2017).

Canales, C., Estrada, M., Thorson, L., Robuste F.:Public Transport Policies in Europe: Impelmenting bus rapid transit systems in major European cities,Associationfor European Transport and Contributors, June 2006.

EMBARQ, BRT+: www.brtdata.org, https://brtdata.org/indicators/systems/operating_speed(2021).